· Accreditation: The issuance of a certificate by the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace (OACP, for its Spanish acronym), by means of which an individual is certified as part of the Organized Illegal Armed Group of the FARC-EP, within the Framework of the Final Agreement for the Termination of the Armed Conflict and the Construction of a Stable and Lasting Peace, taking into account the provisions of Decree 1081 of 2015 [1] , modified by Decree 1753 of November 3, 2016 and the provisions of paragraph 5 of Article 8 of the Law 418 of 1997, modified by article 1 of Law 1779 of 2016. 

These accreditations are recorded in the administrative acts that are given to each former combatant. Additionally, the OACP issues Resolutions with all the people that are accredited, which are sent to ARN. Individuals who are included in these Resolutions are those who will receive the economic benefits and social provisions contained in DL 899 of 2017.

·    BACRIM:   Criminal gangs recognized as criminal organizations (macro - criminal) that are significantly armed and develop activities of both control of large illegal businesses and subsidiary depredation of the same, and which often use violence as a mechanism of internal discipline, delimitation of specific areas of influence, and unilateral coercion and intimidation of third parties, in order to maintain the operating conditions required by their activities.

·    Basic Income:  An economic benefit that will be granted to each member of the FARC-EP once the process of accreditation and transition into legality has been completed and  upon the termination of the Transitory Normalization Zones and for twenty-four (24) months, provided they do not have a contractual, labor, legal and regulatory relationship, or a contract of any nature that generates income. This economic benefit will be equal to 90% of the Legal Monthly Minimum Wage effective at the time of its recognition. 

Once the aforementioned 24 months have been completed, a monthly allowance equivalent to 90% of the Legal Monthly Minimum Wage will be granted, as long as the beneficiary proves that he/she has continued his/her educational route in accordance with the purposes of reincorporation and that he/she does not obtain resources derived from a contractual, labor, legal and regulatory relationship, or a contract of any nature that generates income. The terms and conditions for the recognition of this benefit will be established by the National Government in accordance with the recommendations made by CNR. (Article 8 of Decree-Law 899 of 2017).

·    Blue Tents:   Position of command in each Territorial Training and Reincorporation Space, comprised by the Public Prosecutor's Office, the Ombudsman's Office, the Mechanism of Monitoring and Verification of the United Nations, the Military Forces and the Police to be in charge of helping to solve the problems that may arise on security issues and have a quick and efficient response.

·    Collective Productive Projects:  Business units led by formal organizations whose members have been organized with the purpose of increasing their income and accessing formal markets and cooperation resources through the production, processing, storage, distribution and commercialization of materials, products or services that are common for the members of the organization.

·    Commitment Minutes (Law 1820):  Formal Minutes that will be signed by the beneficiaries of the freedoms foreseen in Law 1820 of 2016 that will contain the commitment to report any change of residence to the Special Jurisdiction for Peace and not leaving the country without prior authorization of such Jurisdiction. These minutes must be signed before the Executive Secretary of the Special Peace Jurisdiction. (Article 36 of Law 1820 of 2016).

·    Cooperatives:   Form of economic association that has the intention of satisfying the collective needs of a community through a company, where all the members are owners and have the ability to exercise democratic control.

·    Demobilization:    The official and controlled withdrawal of active combatants from armed forces and groups, which includes a "reinsertion or reintegration" phase in which short-term assistance is provided to former combatants.

·    Development Programs with a Territorial Approach (PDET, for its Spanish acronym):   Projected to 10 years,  PDET are strategies to ensure that the Comprehensive Rural Reform, established in Article 1 of the Final Agreement, is implemented as a priority in territories particularly affected by the conflict. The central themes that guide the PDET are:

o Social order of rural property and land use

o Economic reactivation and agricultural production

o Rural education, housing, drinking water and sanitation

o Rural health

o Right to Food

o Reconciliation, coexistence and peace

o Infrastructure and land adaptation

·    Differential Way of Life:   Program that aims to ensure the Integral Reintegration of minors and their psychosocial accompaniment with the oversight of social or specialized organizations. The program was designed by CNR and is called Differential Way of Life: A Comprehensive Program for the Care and Consolidation of the Life Projects of the Minors that leave the FARC-EP.  The program includes the following phases: a.- Restoration of rights; b.- Repair and c.- Reincorporation and social inclusion. The Presidential Council for Human Rights is in charge of this program.

·    Early Reincorporation:   These actions are co-designed between the National Government and the FARC within the framework of the National Reincorporation Council (CNR, for its Spanish acronym) to facilitate the adaptation of the guerrillas into civil life.

·    "Economías Sociales del Común - ECOMÚN":   A special organization of solidary economies that will aim to promote, according to its bylaws, the process of economic and social reintegration of the members of the FARC-EP and fulfill the functions assigned to it in the Final Peace Agreement as well as others attributed by the Law.  The effective provisions of solidarity economy organizations will be applied to ECOMUN in the cases topics not specifically covered by Decree-Law 899 of 2017.

·    Excluded from accreditation lists:   The Office of the High Commissioner for Peace (OACP, for its Spanish acronym) issued Resolutions where it excludes certain former combatants of the FARC-EP as certified members.

·    Excluded from FARC-EP lists without accreditation:   The FARC-EP excluded certain people from the lists delivered to the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace, and for this reason, those people were excluded from being certified  as a former members of the Organized Illegal Armed Group - GAOML.

·    FARC Member (IF, for its Spanish acronym):   Individual who joins the Political Party "Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común" (FARC).

·    Financial Inclusion:  Procedure carried out in accordance with the provisions of Article 21 of Decree-Law 899 of 2017, which is also known as Access to the Financial System, through which the members of the FARC accessed the financial system based on the lists submitted by OACP, once the accreditation process was completed. Banco Agrario  of Colombia was in charge of this process and had the collaboration and support of ARN.

·    Gender approach:   Refers to the recognition that the armed conflict has had different impacts in terms of the gender dimension, affecting in greater proportion women and minorities. Therefore, it is argued that the strategies that are implemented to carry out reincorporation must include this differentiation and, at the same time, try to reduce the structural causes that have enabled these gaps.

·    Individual productive projects:  Business unit where production, processing, storage, distribution and commercialization of materials, products or services are carried out. Generally, this business unit is not legally incorporated and is led by a person. Each member of the FARC undergoing a Reincorporation Process will be entitled for once to economic support to undertake a productive project or individual housing.

·    Former combatant:   A person who was part of the organized illegal armed group  of the FARC-EP and who has fulfilled his/her process of demobilization / mobilization into civil life.

·    FUCEPAZ:   Colombian Foundation of former combatants and peace promoters.

·    GAOML:   Armed Group Organized Outside the Law.

·    "Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común": The name of the new political party of the former members of the FARC-EP.

·    Mobilization:  Transit of former combatants of the FARC-EP into the political party "Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común (FARC)."

·    Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (MM & V):   Mechanism for verifying compliance with the Final Peace Agreement that allows the administration of different factors that may put at risk the Bilateral and Definitive Cease of Fire and Hostilities (CFHBD) and Abandonment of Weapons (DA), and particularly, verifying compliance with the Rules that govern CFHBD and DA. The functions, procedures and scope are established in the mandate of the Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (MM & V). This is a technical, efficient and agile mechanism that contributes to the generation of transparency, credibility and confidence in the process of execution of CFHBD.The MM & V will be a tripartite technical mechanism and will be made up by representatives of the National Government (Public Froces), the FARC-EP, and an International Component consisting in a political mission with unarmed observers of the UN, mainly made up by observers of member countries of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC).

·    Monitoring, Promotion and Verification Commission for the Implementation of the Final Agreement (CSIVI, for its Spanish acronym):  This Commission has the purpose of: resolving the differences arising from the implementation of the Final Peace Agreement; monitoring the components of the Agreement and the verification of their compliance; promoting and monitoring of the legislative implementation of the agreements; monitoring reports on implementation; and the receipt of inputs from agencies responsible for implementation. CSIVI is made up by three representatives of the National Government and three representatives of the FARC or their political party "Alternative Revolutionary Force of Colombia" (Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria de Colombia).

·    National Comprehensive Plan for the Substitution of illegal crops (PNIS, for its Spanish acronym):  Plan established in Article 4.1 of the Final Agreement and that aims at ensuring the well-being and good living of the people affected by illegal crops, especially the farmers who derive their subsistence from them. Through community agreement, differential approach, and voluntary substitution, the goal is to generate productive and sustainable options for crop-growers.

·    National Reincorporation Council (CNR, for its Spanish acronym):  Council that has the mission of defining the activities, scheduling and monitoring the Reincorporation Process of the members of the FARC to the legal life, in the economic, social and political aspects, according to their interests, and the provisions of the Final Agreement for the termination of the conflict and the construction of a stable and lasting peace. CNR was created by Decree 2027 of 2016.

·    Normalization:   Concept that integrally includes the processes associated with reinsertion, reintegration and social and economic stabilization of illegally armed groups and individuals who decide to  abandon their weapons. Likewise, the notion of "normalization" recognizes the rights and free will of the armed group and of each of its members.

·    OACP Resolutions:   Administrative Act issued by the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace (OACP, for its Spanish acronym), that CERTIFIES former combatants as members of the Organized Illegal Armed Group of the FARC-EP. These Resolutions are the pertinent legal instrument to know if a person is accredited by OACP. Failure to be included in these resolutions results in NOT being certified and, therefore, the person can not be a beneficiary of the Reincorporation Program.

·    PDF:   Person deprived of freedom.

·    Peace Account:  The technical name assigned to the type of bank accounts that Banco Agrario de Colombia opened for the members of the FARC that were duly accredited. Individuals will receive the economic benefits provided in the Decree Law 899 of 2017 in these accounts.

·    Peace Managers:   Discretionary power of the President of the Republic, based on Article 10 of Law 418 of 1997, modified and extended by Law 1779 of 2016 and based on Law 975 of 2005, which establishes that the direction of the peace policy corresponds to the President of the Republic as responsible for the preservation of public order throughout the nation.  

In turn, paragraph 4 of Article 189 of the Political Constitution of Colombia states that it is a duty of the President of the Republic as Head of State, Head of Government and Supreme Administrative Authority, to preserve public order throughout the territory and to restore it wherever it is disturbed, and item 11 of the same article establishes that the President should to exert his/her regulatory power, by means of the expedition of decrees, resolutions and necessary orders for the execution of the laws.  

Similarly, according to Judgment C-048 of 2001, the Honorable Constitutional Court specified that political bodies have a wide discretion margin to design, within the framework of the Political Constitution and the laws, mechanisms for the peaceful resolution of conflicts. The figure of  "Peace Managers or Promoters" was established with the purpose of promoting humanitarian agreements for the "suspension of the measure of imprisonment, punishment or requesting alternative punishment against members or former members of organized illegal armed groups", with the purpose of facilitating and moving forward on the structuring of the peace process, and in particular, for the effective implementation of the Final Peace Agreement.

·    Pseudonym:   Common name with which former combatants were identified in times of war that is different from the civil name that appears on their corresponding citizenship card. The pseudonym has no civil validity, thus what is valid is the name that appears on the citizenship or civil registry card and in the case of foreigners on their respective Special Peace Visa.

·    Rapid Response Strategy (ERR, for its Spanish acronym):   Set of measures that will be implemented from the first quarters of 2016 until the end of 2017 and that aim to overcome the multitude of obstacles that a peace process faces in its first year. The ERR is underpinned by 5 transversal approaches:

o Community participation

o Reconciliation

o Differential approach

o Action without environmental damage

o Sustainability in local and national public policies

·    Reincorporation Program:  The implementation of co-designed short, medium and long-term measures that will allow the FARC to incorporate themselves into civil life in order to be citizens with rights and obligations. 

According to the provisions of the Peace Agreement and the accords of the National Reincorporation Council (CNR, for its Spanish acronym), this program will be developed in two phases: the first has been called Early Reincorporation, and the second phase is known as Long-Term Reincorporation.

·    Second Mandate of the United Nations Organization (UN):   Mandate established by Resolution 2366 of 2017 of the United Nations Security Council that aims to verify the implementation by the Government of Colombia and the FARC-EP of points 3.2 and 3.4 of the Final Peace Agreement, in accordance with the provisions of point 6.3.3 of the Final Agreement.

·    Small Community Infrastructure (PIC, for its Spanish acronym):  The investment on public good improvements whose implementation does not imply major technical complexity and that can be carried out by the community itself. Some examples are road improvements, such as the construction of a pedestrian bridge, or social projects, such as the improvement of a health service point.

·    Socioeconomic Census:   The Census foreseen in Point 3.2.2.6 of the Final Peace Agreement with the purpose of supplying the information required to facilitate the process of integral reincorporation of the FARC-EP into civil life as a community and as individuals, which was under the responsibility of the National University of Colombia and included a sample population of 10,015 former combatants of the FARC.

·    Sole Normalization Assignment:  An economic benefit that is granted to each member of the FARC-EP once the Transitory Normalization Zones have been terminated. (08/16/17 according to Decree 1274 of 2017) This benefit has the main purpose of stabilization and reincorporation into the civil life, for meeting the basic needs of the person undergoing a Reincorporation Process (Article 7, Decree-Law 899, 2017).

·    Solidary or alternative economy:  Productive projects that distance themselves from the current capitalist model, prioritizing solidarity, well-being, equality and environmental sustainability. Although they try to be economically sustainable, their focus is not the maximization of profit but the well-being of people and the community.

·    Special Cases - Article 22, Decree - Law 899 of 2017:   The members of illegally armed groups  previously certified or accredited by the relevant authority that have received benefits in the framework of Reintegration Processes prior to the signing of the Final Peace Agreement may receive the missing portion of the benefits contained in Decree 899 of 2017, after a case-by-case assessment done by CNR, provided they are accredited by the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace as members of the FARC-EP.

·    Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP): A jurisdiction made up by a series of courtrooms, including an Amnesty and Pardon Chamber and a Court for Peace, that has the purpose of administering justice and investigating, clarifying, prosecuting and punishing serious violations of human rights and to the International Humanitarian Law. The Special Jurisdiction for Peace is part of the Integral System of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition. The fact that it deals exclusively and temporarily with the conduct directly and indirectly related to the armed conflict does not imply the substitution of the ordinary jurisdiction.

·    Special Peace Pavilion:  A space designated to those in prison that can apply for Conditional Freedom provided in Article 35, Law 1820 of 2016, and to those who have been incarcerated for less than 5 years.  Decree 1274 of 2017 established in its article 4 that once the ZVTN where the Special Pavilion for Peace is located is terminated, the persons who were transferred to said Pavilion would have conditional freedom at the disposition of the Special Peace Justice after fulfilling the conditions of Article 36 of the aforementioned Law. 

·    Special Resident Peace Visa:   A visa created through Decree-Law 831 of 2017 that may be granted to foreign citizen members of the FARC-EP who are in the lists delivered by representatives of that organization and verified by the National Government, as provided in the Final Peace Agreement. This is once the process of abandonment of weapons and transit into legality have been completed, and for those who  intend to have their main domicile in Colombia and settle in the country indefinitely. The foreigner holding a Special Resident Peace Visa will be authorized to exercise any legal occupation in the country, including those that are developed by virtue of an employment relationship or contract. The validity of this visa will be indefinite. The Department of Foreign Affairs issues this visa.

 

·    Sustainability:   The recognition that the strategies used to carry out  reincorporation must: (i) be able to sustain themselves beyond the immediate institutional efforts and have long-term positive effects; and (ii) be able to incorporate practices and guidelines that face the current environmental crisis and that help to preserve ecosystems.

·    Territorial Reincorporation Councils -CTR (for its Spanish acronym):   Councils created in the territories where the Territorial Training and Reincorporation Spaces operate. These will serve for the design of the Reincorporation policy, plans and programs, based on the needs and strengths of the territories.  CTR will also help coordinate the offer and work of the authorities, communities and other regional and local entities around  Reincorporation.  ARN's Resolution 1994 dated September 15th, 2017, defines "the authorization procedure of the payments for accommodation and transportation of the representatives of the FARC-EP that are part of the National Council of Reincorporation - CNR and the Territorial Councils of Reincorporation - CTR. "

·    Territorial Training and Reincorporation Spaces (ETCR, for its Spanish acronym):  As decided by the CSIVI in its Joint Communication Nº 19, ZVTN would be transformed into Territorial Training and Reincorporation Zones which will serve to train the former members of the FARC-EP for their reincorporation into civil life, prepare productive projects and attend the technical training needs of the surrounding communities, within a community reincorporation model, in accordance with Decree 1274, 2017, and Decree 2026, 2017.

·    Transitional Justice:   A legal institution that has the purpose of integrating various efforts applied by societies to face the consequences of massive violations and generalized or systematic abuses in human rights occuring in a conflict aimig at a constructive stage of peace, respect, reconciliation and consolidation of democracy, situations of exception that would occur in contrast to what would result from the application of current criminal institutions. (Constitutional Court Ruling C-771 of 2011).

·    Transitional Rural Normalization Zones (ZVTN, for its Spanish acronym):  These were geographical spaces that had as an additional purpose to initiate the process of preparation for the reincorporation of the FARC-EP structures into civilian life regarding the economic, political and social aspects according to their interests.  These were designed for the members of the organization that participated and were committed to the Bilateral and Definitive Cease of Fire and Hostilities and the Abandonment of Weapons (CFHBD - DA, for its Spanish acronym). Their termination took place on August 15th, 2017 in accordance with the provisions of Decree 1274 of 2017.

·    Technical Unit for Reincorporation:   An internal work team assigned to ARN's General Directorate created by the Decree-Law 897, 2017, and internally through Resolution 2181 dated October 4th of 2017, "by which  an internal work team is created in the internal structure of the Reincorporation and Normalization Agency and functions are assigned." 

This Unit will work with adequate and sufficient resources to develop the economic and social components of the Reincorporation Program of the members of the FARC into civil life, according to their interests, and strictly subject to the terms and conditions defined by the National Reincorporation Council (CNR), as established in the Final Agreement for the Termination of the Conflict and the Construction of a Stable and Lasting Peace signed on November 24th, 2016, and in the constitutional and legal regulations adopted for its implementation.

·    Transitory Reception Locations:   These sites are defined to guarantee the Integral Reintegration of minors and their psychosocial accompaniment with the oversight of social or specialized organizations.

·    Weapons disposal:  The technical, traceable and verifiable procedure by which the United Nations (UN) received all the weaponry of the FARC-EP in order to allocate it to the construction of monuments. This process was carried out during the validity of the old   Transitional Rural Normalization Zones and the Transitional Normalization Points.

[1]   Decree 1081 of 2015 (May 26) Official Journal No. 49,523 of 5/26/2015 .    "By means of which the Sole Regulatory Decree of the Presidential Sector of the Republic is issued"